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GLOBULAR OR FLAT EARTH?

 

A popular debate that fuels social media is the shape of our only planet earth. Is it globular (round) or plane (flat)? Let's analyze the Bible vs Science.

In Mesopotamian and Kemetic times, the world was described as a disc floating in the ocean.

  • The Homeric account of the 8th century BC speaks of the Okeanos: the expanse of water surrounding the circular surface of the Earth, and which generates all life and possibly all gods.

  • Ancient Egyptian pyramid and sarcophagus texts show a similar cosmography; Nun (the Ocean) encircles nbwt (dry lands or islands) - Bibliotheca Sacra. 165: 178–194.

  • In Hebrew cosmology, the Israelites also imagined the Earth as a disc floating on water surmounted by an arched firmament that separated the Earth from heaven. The ancient Hebrews believed, as did most ancient peoples, that the sky was a solid dome in which the Sun, Moon, planets and stars were integrated - The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion.

  • The Ming Dynasty in China also conformed to the universal belief in a flat Earth lying on the horizontal diametral plane of a spherical sky. Contemporary Chinese Encyclopedia of 1609 .

In 1893, Orlando Ferguson produced a biblical map of the world based on a literal interpretation of the Bible, including the reference to angels standing at the four corners of the earth (see below).

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It was not until the 19th century, following the historic Apollo 11 landing on the moon on July 20, 1969, that images of a round earth became solid proof and images of a globular earth began to surface. Subsequently, between 1969 and 1972 there were a total of 6 lunar expeditions. It would be pertinent to point out some facts about this historical event. 

  1. Several apocryphal books (hidden from the general public) allude to the fact that the Moon and the Sun are gigantic luminaries that illuminate the Earth. These luminaries are essentially filled with fire and heat and are devoid of any solid surfaces. A lunar landing would then seem like an impossibility. How these astronauts managed to walk on the Moon would then remain a real mystery.

  2. We wonder how Apollo and his crew managed to cross the Van Allen belts which are a deadly concentration of Alpha, Beta, and Gamma radioactive particles surrounding the magnetosphere? Note that any object approaching the Van Allen Belts cannot survive and will inevitably disintegrate. 

  3. In 2006, NASA admitted that the original video recordings of the July 20, 1969 landing could no longer be found because they were part of a batch of 200,000 tapes that were demagnetized. In other words, the authentic evidence of such an important event no longer exists?

  4. William Sanford Nye aka "Bill Nye" - American scientific communicator and mechanical engineer, once said: "The earth is a closed system; we can't leave the earth". Why would he make that statement?

  5. Robert Simmon, NASA graphic designer, once explained how he created the image of the Earth called "Blue Marble". He admitted to using "command Z" a whole lot and all the images of the Earth are literally photoshopped. He once said" "It’s photoshopped, but it has to be!" Again why would he make that statement?"

What does the Bible say about the shape of the earth?

A careful reading of the Bible presents us with an image of the earth that is in great opposition to the scientific evidence which, under the influence of astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus and his theory of heliocentrism, suggests that our planet Earth is a globe that turns daily on its axis and revolves around the sun. Note that historical record indicates that Copernicus was a Catholic clergyman, sun worshipper, occultist and freemason.

The Bible rather teaches this:
"The Earth is a circular and motionless flat expanse covered by a dome and suspended in nothingness in the midst of the waters. The sun is not motionless; it moves from one end of the earth to another."

So who to believe? The word of God or the scientific evidence? It is important to understand that an image of a round earth, strongly questions the veracity of Scriptures, invalidates the authoritative Word of ELOHIM and denies His existence. In order to understand why, let us examine all the biblical verses related to the appearance of the earth:

The earth is a circle

By definition, a circle is a round plane figure whose boundary (the circumference) consists of points equidistant from a fixed point (the center). Note that what is circular is not automatically globular. 

  • Isaiah 40:22 "He sits enthroned above the circle of the earth

  • Proverbs 8:27 "I was there when He established the heavens, when He inscribed a circle on the face of the deep"

  • Job 26:10 ""He has inscribed a circle on the surface of the waters At the boundary of light and darkness."

 

The Bible also mentions the circle that was traced in the midst of the waters separated the waters above from the waters below. Is this why the sky is blue, like a gigantic ocean hanging over our heads? 

  • Genesis 1:6-8 "And God said, “Let there be an expanse between the waters, to separate the waters from the waters. So God made the expanse and separated the waters beneath it from the waters above.”

  • 2 Peter 3:5-6 "But they deliberately overlook the fact that long ago by God’s word the heavens existed and the earth was formed out of water and by water, through which the world of that time perished in the flood."

The earth is motionless (it does not move)

  • Psalms 93: 1 "The LORD reigns! He is robed in majesty; the LORD has clothed and armed Himself with strength. The world indeed is firmly established; it cannot be moved."

  • 1 Chronicles 16:30 "tremble before Him, all the earth. The world is firmly established; it cannot be moved."

  • "Psalms 96:10 "Declare among the nations: “The LORD reigns!” The world is firmly established; it cannot be moved"

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The earth is a flat expanse

  • Job 38:18 "Have you comprehended the vast expanses of the earth? Tell me, if you know all this."

  • Isaiah 44:24 "Thus says the LORD, your Redeemer who formed you from the womb: “I am the LORD, who has made all things, who alone stretched out the heavens, who by Myself spread out the earth"

  • Psalms 136: 6 "He spread out the earth upon the waters. His loving devotion endures forever."

  • Psalms 19: 1 "The heavens are telling of the glory of God; And their expanse is declaring the work of His hands."

  • Daniel 4:11 "The tree grew large and strong; its top reached the sky, and it was visible to the ends of the earth." (Such a tree could be seen from all ends of the world only on a flat earth)

* Definitions of expanse

An expanse is a huge area you can look all at once. 

- A wide and open space, area, surface, land or sky

- A wide scope

- The extent of a 2-dimensional surface enclosed within a boundary. 

Extent means the following:

to put (an articulated organ, an elongated object) in a horizontal position. To place (an object) by spreading it out on a surface. To unfold, to deploy in its largest dimension. To cover a certain distance, a certain length. To lie down (someone) all the way. To take a lying position

The earth is covered with a solid dome (the firmament)

A vault is a structure that is convex at its upper and outer surface, and concave at its lower and inner surface, or a half-dome.

  • Psalms 19:4  "Their voice goes out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. In them he has set a tent for the sun,"

  • Esaïe 40:22 "He sits enthroned above the circle of the earth; its dwellers are like grasshoppers. He stretches out the heavens like a curtain, and spreads them out like a tent to dwell in."

  • Amos 9:6 "He builds His upper rooms in the heavens and founds His vault upon the earth. He summons the waters of the sea and pours them over the face of the earth. The LORD is His name."

  • Job 37:18 "“Can you, with Him, spread out the skies, Strong as a cast metal mirror?"

  • Job 22:14 "Thick clouds veil him, so that he does not see, and he walks on the vault of heaven."

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The earth hangs in nothingness

  • Job 26: 7 "He stretches out the north over empty space; He hangs the earth upon nothing"

  • Job 38: 6 "What holds up the pillars that support the earth? Who laid the cornerstone of the world?"

The earth has foundations supported by pillars / columns, and has lower regions

A ball or globe has no pillar or foundation. For a ball-shaped object to have a foundation, it must have a base.

  • Proverbs 8:29 "when He set a boundary for the sea, so that the waters would not surpass His command, when He marked out the foundations of the earth."

  • 1 Samuel 2:8 "For the pillars of the earth are the LORD’s, And He has set the world upon them."

  • Job 9:6 "He shakes the earth out of its place, And its pillars tremble;"

  • Psalms 104:5 "You who laid the foundations of the earth, So that it should not be moved forever."

  • What does “He ascended” mean, except that He also descended to the lower parts of the earth?

The sun is a luminary within the firmament (the dome). It is not static, it moves from one end of the earth to another

  • Genesis 1:16-17 "God made the two great lights, the greater light to govern the day, and the lesser light to govern the night; He made the stars also; God placed them in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth"

  • Psalms 19: 5-6 "Like a bridegroom emerging from his chamber, like a champion rejoicing to run his course, it rises at one end of the heavens and runs its circuit to the other; nothing is deprived of its warmth. "

  • Ecclesiastes 1:5 "Also, the sun rises and the sun sets; And hastening to its place it rises there again".

 

But if the sun is stationary and the earth revolves around the sun as science tells us, why did Joshua ordered the sun to stop moving and not the earth?

  • Joshua10:12-13 "On the day that the LORD gave the Amorites over to the Israelites, Joshua spoke to the LORD in the presence of Israel: “O sun, stand still over Gibeon, O moon, over the Valley of Aijalon.”So the sun stood still and the moon stopped until the nation took vengeance upon its enemies. Is this not written in the Book of Jashar? “So the sun stopped in the middle of the sky and delayed going down about a full day."

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Thus, according to the Biblical model, the earth is a flat circular expanse in the midst of the waters and covered by a dome, similar to half a globe. This would present Antarctica as a gigantic wall of ice that surrounds the circumference of the Earth and holds back the waters. It would then call into question the existence of the North and South Poles. The following video contains the representation of the Earth according to Biblical account.

What do explorers say?

Strange as it may seem, it has been scientifically proven that if you set a course anywhere on the earth, at an angle of less than 78 degrees latitude to the south, you will inevitably find yourself facing a huge wall of ice towering at least 100-200 meters into the air and extending from east to west around the entire circumference of the earth. 

 

In 1773, Captain Cook became the first known modern explorer to have reached the ice wall and crossed the Antarctic Circle. During three expeditions of three years and eight days, Captain Cook and his crew traveled a total of 100,000 km along the Antarctic coast, without ever finding a crack or a path through or over the gigantic ice wall. Captain Cook wrote: The ice extended east and west far beyond the reach of our sight, while the southern half of the horizon was illuminated by rays of light which were reflected from the ice to a considerable height. It was indeed my opinion that this ice extends quite to the pole, or perhaps joins some land to which it has been fixed since creation.

 

On October 5th, 1839 another explorer, James Clark Ross began a series of Antarctic voyages lasting a total of 4 years and 5 months. Ross and his crew sailed two heavily armored warships thousands of miles, losing many men from hurricanes and icebergs, looking for an entry point beyond the southern glacial wall. Upon first confronting the massive barrier Captain Ross wrote of the wall:

"extending from its eastern extreme point as far as the eye could discern to the eastward. It presented an extraordinary appearance, gradually increasing in height, as we got nearer to it, and proving at length to be a perpendicular cliff of ice, between one hundred and fifty feet and two hundred feet above the level of the sea, perfectly flat and level at the top, and without any fissures or promontories on its even seaward face."

 

Here is a quote from Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, author of Zetetic Astronomy, Earth Not a Globe! "(117) said about his observations:

"It has been demonstrated that the earth is a plane, the surface-centre of which is immediately underneath the star called “Polaris,” and the extremities of which are bounded by a vast region of ice and water and irregular masses of land, which bear evidence of Plutonic or fiery action and origin. The whole terminates in fog and darkness, where snow and driving hail, piercing sleet and boisterous winds, howling storms, madly-mounting waves, and clashing icebergs, are almost constant... How far the ice extends; how it terminates; and what exists beyond it, are questions to which no present human experience can reply. All we at present know is, that snow and hail, howling winds, and indescribable storms and hurricanes prevail; and that in every direction “human ingress is barred by unsealed escarpments of perpetual ice,” extending farther than eye or telescope can penetrate, and becoming lost in gloom and darkness"

You can read the entire book below

 

The Book of Enoch speaks in great detail of the ends of the earth, and what is described therein is consistent with the observations of the explorers. The Bible also corroborates these observations by mentioning how YAHWEH has set a boundary on the waters in the form of ice:

  • Psalms 104: 9 "You set a firm boundary for the seas, so they would never again cover the earth."

  • Proverbs 8:29 "When He set a boundary for the sea, so that the waters would not surpass His command, when He marked out the foundations of the earth."

  • Job 37:10 "By the breath of God the ice is formed and the watery expanses are frozen."

  • Job 38: 22-23 "Have you entered the storehouses of snow or observed the storehouses of hail, which I hold in reserve for times of trouble, for the day of war and battle ? "

  • Job 38: 8-11 "Who enclosed the sea behind doors when it burst forth from the womb, when I made the clouds its garment and thick darkness its blanket, when I fixed its boundaries and set in place its bars and doors, and I declared: ‘You may come this far, but no farther; here your proud waves must stop"

Interestingly, following the Antarctic Treaty signed by several countries in Washington DC on December 1, 1959, Antarctica and the North Pole are kept under governmental secrecy.. Both areas are off-limits to all humans through rigorous and constant military surveillance, several civilian, pilots and ship captains have been expelled or escorted out under threat of violence.

Hence questions about how far does the Antarctic ice extend? Is there a limit? What lies beyond, or is it just endless snow and ice? remain great mysteries to the common man.

However, there are some scriptures that seem to indicate that the ice wall does not just prevent the waters from flooding the Earth, but also serves another purpose. 

Briefly, Alexander the Great was born in Macedonia in the year 356 BC and died 32 years later, he reigned only 13 years. His legendary conquest of almost the entire world gave birth to one of the greatest empires in ancient history. Alexander subdued the entire Persian Empire: Asia Minor, Persia, Greece, India, Egypt and everything in between, including Israel. Alexander died undefeated in battle but without a clear heir, which led to the division of his empire among four of his generals. 

According to the Book of Gleanings - Book of the Bee, when Alexander was king and had subdued countries and cities, and had arrived in the East, he saw on the confines of the East those men who are of the children of Japhet. They were more wicked and unclean than all (other) dwellers in the world; filthy peoples of hideous appearance, who ate mice and the creeping things of the earth and snakes and scorpions. They never buried the bodies of their dead, and they ate as dainties the children which women aborted and the after-birth. People ignorant of God, and unacquainted with the power of reason, but who lived in this world without understanding like ravening beasts. 

 

Alexander, seeing their wickedness, with great tears, called upon the Lord for help. ELOHIM, gathered them and their wives and children. He led them and brought them into the northern limits, where the gate of the world is in the north, and there is no other entrance or exit from the confines of the world from east to north. Then He ordered the two high mountains called "the sons of the north" to move closer to one another until there was about 12 cubits between them. He built a solid wall in front of them, and made a door of brass, which he anointed inside and outside with the oil of Thesnatits, so that if iron tools were inserted to open it, it could not be moved, and if it were to be melted by fire, it would be extinguished; moreover, it would not be subject to the operations of demons or sorcerers, and could not be broken. At the end of the world and at the final consecration, when men will believe that world peace and unity have finally been established in the world, suddenly the gates of the North will open and the armies of the nations who are locked up there will come out to fight against the rich, the powerful and those who assume to be safe and secure in their bunkers. |Le Livre des Glaneurs - Le Livre de l’Abeille, Chap. 54|

  • Ezekiel 39:6 "I will send fire on Magog and on those who dwell securely in the coastlands, and they will know that I am the LORD.."

  • Jeremiah 6:1 "Run for cover, O sons of Benjamin; flee from Jerusalem! Sound the ram’s horn in Tekoa; send up a signal over Beth-haccherem, for disaster looms from the north, even great destruction."

  • Ezekiel 38:14-16 "Therefore prophesy, son of man, and tell Gog that this is what the Lord GOD says: On that day when My people Israel are dwelling securely, will you not take notice of this?  And you will come from your place out of the far north—you and many peoples with you, all riding horses—a mighty horde, a huge army. You will advance against My people Israel like a cloud covering the land."

  • Job 38:22-23 Have you entered the place where the snow is stored? Or have you seen the storehouses of hail, which I hold in reserve for times of trouble, for the day of warfare and battle?"

 
Consequently, if we take into account the observations of the explorers and biblical verses, Antarctica cannot be that tiny ice continent confined to the lower antipode of the astronomer's globes, but it literally surrounds all the continents at 360 degrees and acts as a barrier that holds back the oceans.
 

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Why is the concept of rotundity or round earth problematic?

Commanders of various maritime expeditions have reported significant gaps between their logbooks and chronometer results.

  • Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, who commanded a naval expedition to explore Antarctica towards the South Pole, from August 18, 1838 to June 10, 1842, that is, nearly four years devoted to the exploration and observation of the Austral Ocean, mentioned in his logbook how he would constantly find himself east of his calculations, sometimes more than 32 kilometers away in less than 18 hours

  • Captain James Clark Ross, who led many expeditions across the Antarctic periphery, often wrote in his logbook about how perplexing it was that his calculations regularly averaged 19 to 26 kilometers off the charts, and on some days up to 47 kilometers off the original calculation.

These commanders were with their education unable to conceive another explanation for these differences, apart from the effect of currents.

Here is a quote from David Wardlaw Scott, author of Terra Firma:

"Upon the principle, as taught by Scripture and common observation, that the world is not a Planet, but consists of vast masses of land stretched " out upon level seas, the North being the centre of the system, it is evident that the degrees of longitude will gradually increase in width the whole way from the North centre to the icy boundary of the great Southern Circumference. In con- sequence of the difference between the actual extent of longitudes and that allowed for them by the Nautical Authorities, which difference, at the latitude of the Cape of Good Hope, has been estimated to amount to a great number of miles, many Ship-masters have lost their reckoning, and many vessels have been wrecked... Ship-captains, who have been educated in the globular theory, know not how tO' account for their getting so much out of their course in Southern latitudes, and generally put it down to currents; but this reason is futile, for although currents may exist, they do not usually run in opposite directions, and vessels are fre- quently wrecked, whether sailing East or West."

You can read the entire book below

 

It is now known that the effect of currents does not explain these differences, because regardless of the itinerary taken toward the east or west, the same results are obtained. The waters of the southern region cannot operate simultaneously in two opposite directions. Therefore, although various local and variable currents have been observed, it is impossible to demonstrate that they are the cause of the discrepancies between the chronometer and logbook results typically observed in high southern latitudes. Here's why:

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Science

  • On a globular earth, each line of latitude south and north of the equator should measure a gradually smaller circumference as one moves south or north, and the lines of longitude would expand at the equator and then converge at both poles. Under this model, the discrepancies observed by ship captains at high southern latitudes do not make any sense and remain a mystery impossible to explain or justify.

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The Word of God

  • On the other hand, on an Earth with a flat surface, the more one moves further away from the equator towards the outer side, the more the lines of longitude will also extend and each line of latitude will measure a wider and broader circumference. Under this model, the discrepancies observed on the chronological results and the logbooks, find a solid explanation.

 

Alexander Gleason created and patented the New Standard Map Of The World (see map below)  which offers a polar azimuthal projection, centering the North Pole and flattening the globe outward around the edges.

In a book he wrote in 1893 entitled: "Is the Bible from Heaven? Is The Earth a Globe?", Gleason challenged the theory of the Earth's rotundity and proposed his flat map as a practical tool for measuring time and showing how longitude and time could be calculated by drawing an indicator around the flat surface. 

 

You can read the entire book below

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Surprisingly, the United Nations organization, which was founded on October 24, 1945, in San Francisco, California, has as its emblem the map of the world, not in the shape of a globe but rather inscribed on a flat surface with an equidistant azimuthal projection centered on the North Pole (like the Gleason map); and encircled by a crown composed of conventional olive branches intertwined. The olive branches are thought to represent the Ice Wall surrounding the circumference of the earth and holding back the waters. Note that the G20 summit meeting table also has a map inscribed on a flat surface. Why not just a globe but rather this logo that strangely supports biblical writings?

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Here are some other puzzling questions about the Earth's rotundity.

  1. How can gravity bind entire oceans to the earth, but not the flight of a bird?

  2. Why are fisheye lenses showing a curve incorporated in airplanes, but when the lens is removed, the horizon appears flat?

  3. Note that many observers believe that the images from ground-based telescopes are counterfeit and appear to have been photoshopped. They wonder about the following points: Why don't the clouds move even if you observe images for about 4 hours of time? Why don't the images of the Earth and the Moon have stars?

  4. Recent images from the James Webb Space Telescope are causing panic among astronomers, as they repeatedly and blatantly contradict the Big Bang hypothesis, and the theory is now plagued by profound conundrums. Indeed, the Big Bang theory depends crucially on the cosmic inflation hypothesis, according to which the universe began 14 billion years ago in an incredibly hot and dense state, expanded over several orders of magnitude faster than the speed of light, and hasn't stopped expanding. This hypothesis having been defended for decades as an unquestionable truth by the vast majority of cosmologists, the new images from the enormous Telescope failed to prove the existence of cosmic inflation. One of its founders, Paul Steinhardt, denounced the Big Bang theory as flawed and "scientifically meaningless".

  5. If the Earth is a globe, why has no one found its curvature or convexity yet?

  6. If the sun is outside the Earth and the Earth revolves around the sun, how can we account for the sun moving through the clouds? 

  7. If the theory of evolution is true, why don't apes evolve into humans anymore?

  8. And above all, why are there so many treaties and prohibitions, around a universe that would have appeared randomly?

  • Romans 1: 19-22. "For what may be known about God is plain to them, because God has made it plain to them. For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood from His workmanship, so that men are without excuse. For although they knew God, they neither glorified Him as God nor gave thanks to Him, but they became futile in their thinking and darkened in their foolish hearts. Although they claimed to be wise, they became fools."

You be the judge ... Glory and honor to  YAHWEH our ELOHIM!

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